Exosomes can transfer DNA, RNA, or various proteins from one cell to another and affect the function of the receptor cell. In the field of reconstructive medicine, exosomes have been tested as an alternative to stem cells in a variety of diseases, from heart disease to respiratory disease. To test the effectiveness of exosomes in skin repair, the researchers cultured skin cells and isolated the exosomes from their environment.
Subsequently, commercially available human dermabrasion fibroblast cells were used. These cells were cultured in a suspension environment and allowed to form spheroids by sticking together. The spheroids then secreted the exosomes into the culture medium. Exosomal content of spheroides contained more prolactin than exosomes from two-dimensional culture. These secreted exoskeletons were then used for light-aging mice, and the results were compared with three other treatments, such as retinoid worms, two-dimensional exosomes, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell exosomes. . This comparison was used in terms of skin thickness and collagen production after treatment. Skin thickness in mice treated with spheroidal exosomes was found to be 20% better than in mice treated with mesenchymal cells. Collagen production in the group treated with spheroidal exosomes was up to 30% better than in mice treated with mesenchymal stem cells. Overall, the results of this study showed that exosomes derived from three-dimensional spheroids could be used as an anti-aging skin treatment and had two major advantages: they did not undergo transplant rejection, unlike the use of stem cells or other cells. Needles do not need to be injected because they are small enough to penetrate the skin.